The present study demonstrated the

patterns of theta rhyt

The present study demonstrated the

patterns of theta rhythm induced by passive translation in rats and suggested that the Type I theta rhythm could occur during non-voluntary locomotion. We further argued that the perception of actual self-motion may be the underlying mechanism that initiates and modulates type I theta. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gonadal steroids organize the developing brain during a perinatal sensitive period and have enduring consequences for adult behavior. WZB117 molecular weight In male rodents testicular androgens are aromatized in neurons to estrogens and initiate multiple distinct cellular processes that ultimately determine the masculine phenotype. Within specific brain regions, overall cell number and dendritic morphology are the principal targets for hormonal organization. Recent advances have been made in elucidating the cellular mechanisms by which the neurological underpinnings of sexually dimorphic physiology and behavior are determined. These include estradiol-mediated prostaglandin synthesis, presynaptic release of glutamate, postsynaptic changes in glutamate receptors and changes in cell adhesion molecules. Sex differences in cell death are mediated by hormonal modulation of survival and

death factors such as TNF alpha and Bcl-2/BAX.”
“The complete MX69 in vitro genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in mice results in both altered behavioral performance and increased stress hormone secretion

Smoothened in response to stressful encounters such as forced swim test (FST) exposure. CB1 is expressed on nerve terminals belonging to different neurotransmitter systems, including the glutamatergic and GABAergic system, where it is able to suppress excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively. In the current study, we used the conditional mutagenesis approach in mice to investigate the neurotransmitter systems involved in these behavioral and neuroendocrine phenotypes in regard to CB1 signaling. Mice lacking CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1(-/-)) showed decreased passive stress coping (decreased immobility) in the FST, whereas mice lacking CB1 in principal forebrain neurons (CaMK-CB1(-/-)) and GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1(-/-)), respectively, behaved as littermate controls. However, we found increased FST-induced corticosterone secretion only in CaMK-CB1(-/-) mice, whereas Glu-CB1(-/-) and GABA-CB1(-/-) mice exhibited normal corticosterone release as compared to controls. Thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine acute stress coping in response to the FST is mainly influenced by CB1 signaling on different glutamatergic neuronal subpopulations, but not by CB1 on GABAergic neurons. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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