We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic

We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic Linsitinib cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong type I IFN (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) response, indicating that DCs may play a critical role in the innate response to the virus. In vivo, FMDV induces lymphopenia and reduced T-cell proliferative responses to mitogen, viral effects that may contribute to evasion of early immune responses.

In this study we analyzed the in vivo effects of FMDV infection on the IFN-alpha response of two populations of dendritic cells. During the acute phase of infection of swine, production of IFN-alpha from monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and skin-derived DCs (skin DCs) is inhibited. This effect occurs concurrently with rising viral titers in the blood; however, these cells are not productively infected. Interestingly, there are no changes in the capability of these DCs to take up particles and process antigens, indicating that antigen-presenting cell function is normal. These data indicate that inhibition of the IFN-alpha response of dendritic cell populations from blood and skin by FMDV enhances viral pathogenesis in infected animals.”

Human respiratory epithelia function in airway mucociliary clearance VE-821 research buy and 123 barrier function and have recently been implicated in sensory functions.\n\nOBJECTIVE: We investigated a link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms underlying Ca2+ influx into human

airway epithelia elicited by diesel exhaust particles (DEP).\n\nMETHODS AND RESULTS: Using primary cultures of human respiratory epithelial (HRE) cells, we determined that these cells possess proteolytic signaling machinery, whereby proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activates Ca2+-permeable TRPV4, which leads to activation of human respiratory disease-enhancing matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), a signaling cascade initiated by diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a globally relevant air pollutant. Moreover, we observed ciliary expression of PAR-2, TRPV4, and phospholipase-C 3 in human airway epithelia and their DEP-enhanced protein-protein complex formation. We also found that the chronic HDAC inhibitor mechanism obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-predisposing TRPV4(P19S) variant enhances Ca2+ influx and MMP 1 activation, providing mechanistic linkage between man-made air pollution and human airway disease.\n\nCONCLUSION: DEP evoked protracted Ca2+ influx via TRPV4, enhanced by the COPD-predisposing human genetic polymorphism TRPV4P19S. This mechanism reprograms maladaptive inflammatory and extra cellular-matrix-remodeling responses in human airways. The novel concept of air pollution-responsive ciliary signal transduction from PAR-2 to TRPV4 in human respiratory epithelia will accelerate rationally targeted therapies, possibly via the inhalatory route.

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